D for Detroit addresses profound needs, the absense of which can result in severe consequences. Some of the studies/articles/sources which promote a Sense of Urgency are noted below. For convenience, they are divided into several categories:
A) The Need
B) Vitamin D Studies & Impact
D) Economic &/or Social Implications
E) Other / Supportive Information
Each category is not intended to be an exhaustive listing of all pertinent articles but, rather, is representative of the body of research or information available. With the implementation of 'D for Detroit', we encourage (and will promote) further research in all categories to provide additional data and information on the human, social, and financial value of good health. A good community assures the healthiest possible beginning to life for each child and each mother. It provides a solid foundation upon which each person can grow with a better opportunity for physical & intellectual health.
Links to more resources on Vitamin D:
Grassroots Health, a consortium of researchers and Universities educatucating the public on serious need for increasing blood levels of vitamin d www.grassrootshealth.net
The Vitamin D Council - Dr Cannell - Excellant source for current research and facts on vitamin d
The UV Advantage - Dr Michael Holick - Leading researcher fron the Univesity of Boston www.uvadvantage.org
The Need - Pregnancy and Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency
Tiniest Babies Carry Biggest CostsTUESDAY, March 17 (HealthDay News) — One year of medical costs paid by a company’s health insurance for a premature baby could cover the medical costs of almost a dozen healthy, full-term babies, a new report from the March of Dimes claims.
Medical costs for healthy, full-term babies during their first year average $4,551, of which about $3,800 is covered by employer heath insurance. But for preterm babies, the cost is almost $50,000, with about $46,000 paid by employer insurance.
“The report is really aimed at the business community,” Jennifer L. Howse, the March of Dimes president, said. “The purpose of the report is to underscore the very serious financial consequences of the rising problem of premature birth in our country.”
By highlighting the costs of premature birth, the March of Dimes is hoping to get businesses to take steps to make sure employees and their families get good prenatal care, Howse said. “Being an employer who provides employee health insurance, you are a stakeholder in prevention,” she said. “Good prevention equals a healthier workforce.”
Pregnancy and Gestational Vitamin D Deficiency - Vitamin d Council-John Jacob Cannell MD
In the last 3 years, an increasing amount of research suggests that some of the damage done by Vitamin D deficiency is done in-utero, while the fetus is developing. Much of that damage may be permanent, that is, it can not be fully reversed by taking Vitamin D after birth. This research indicates Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy endangers the mother's life and health, and is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially for the child's brain and immune system. Some of the damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency may not show up for 30 years. Let's start with the mother. Incidence of Gestational Vitamin D DeficiencyDr. Joyce Lee and her colleagues at the University of Michigan studied 40 pregnant women, the majority taking prenatal vitamins. Only two had blood levels >50 ng/mL and only three had levels >40 ng/mL. That is, 37 of 40 pregnant women had levels below 40 ng/mL, and the majority had levels below 20 ng/mL. More than 25% had levels below 10 ng/mL. Lee JM, Smith JR, Philipp BL, Chen TC, Mathieu J, Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency in a healthy group of mothers and newborn infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2007 Jan;46(1):42–4. Dr. Lisa Bodnar, a prolific Vitamin D researcher, and her colleagues at the University of Pittsburg studied 400 pregnant Pennsylvania women; 63% had levels below 30 ng/mL and 44% of the black women in the study had levels below 15 ng/mL. Prenatal vitamins had little effect on the incidence of deficiency. Bodnar LM, Simhan HN, Powers RW, Frank MP, Cooperstein E, Roberts JM. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates. J Nutr. 2007 Feb;137(2):447–52. Dr. Dijkstra and colleagues studied 70 pregnant women in the Netherlands, none had levels above 40 ng/mL and 50% had levels below 10 ng/mL. Again, prenatal vitamins appeared to have little effect on 25(OH)D levels, as you might expect since prenatal vitamins only contain 400 IU of Vitamin D. Dijkstra SH, van Beek A, Janssen JW, de Vleeschouwer LH, Huysman WA, van den Akker EL. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in newborns of high-risk mothers. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Apr 25. Thus, more than 95% of pregnant women have 25(OH)D levels below 50 ng/mL, the level that may indicate chronic substrate starvation. That is, they are using up any Vitamin D they have very quickly and do not have enough to store for future use.
Mayo Clinic- During pregnancy, the active form of vitamin D increases significantly, particularly in the second and third trimesters. During this time, the baby's bones are developing, as are the brain, the nervous system, and the other organs.
Recently, a review published in the journal "Nutrition Reviews" looked at the research about vitamin D and maternal, fetal, and infant health. Although much more research is required, it appears that vitamin D contributes to improving pregnancy outcomes, such as decreasing the risk of pre-eclampsia, and improving length of gestation, birth weight, and infant bone mineralization. It also appears that sufficient vitamin D in early life may decrease the risk of health problems later in life such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes.
Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency- The researchers, from Queen's University, Belfast, the University of Ulster, and Belfast City Hospital report their findings in the British Journal of Nutrition. Many mothers to be are not getting enough vitamin D, even those taking supplements at the recommended doses, says a new study from Northern Ireland.
Prenatal Vitamin D DeficiencyVitamin D Council- In the last 3 years, an increasing amount of research suggests that some of the damage done by Vitamin D deficiencyis done in-utero, while the fetus is developing. Much of that damage may be permanent, that is, it can not be fully reversed by taking Vitamin D after birth. This research indicates Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy endangers the mother's life and health, and is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially for the child's brain and immune system. Some of the damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency may not show up for 30 years. Let's start with the mother.
Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency -.. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Jörg Reichrath and Kerstin Querings, Department of Dermatology
The Saarland University Hospital
....a growing body of evidence now clearly indicatesthat adequate vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy arenot only necessary to ensure appropriate maternal responsesto the calcium demands of the fetus and neonatal handling ofcalcium, but also of great importance to guarantee the healthydevelopment of a broad variety of tissues, including the immunesystem. Consequently, vitamin D deficiency during pregnancymay represent for the fetus a predisposing factor for the futuredevelopment of a multitude of diseases not related to fetalgrowth and bone metabolism, including diseases of the immunesystem, such as atopic dermatitis, type 1 diabetes, and otherautoimmune diseases.
Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency Study - Dr Carol Wagner, Dr Bruce Hollis University South Carolina - Reported in Medpage Today - Women who took high doses of vitamin D during pregnancy had a significantly reduced risk of co-morbidities, including premature birth, results of a randomized trial showed. The take-home message is that pregnant women should take 4,000 International Units a day, according to Carol Wagner, MD, of the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston,
That dose is not only safe, but prevents a range of complications associated with pregnancy, Wagner told attendees at the the Pediatric Academic Societies meeting here.
Prenatal Vitamin D Deficiency Study - Dr Carol Wagner, Dr Bruce Hollis University South Carolina as reported by Vitamin D Council